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We hereby proclaim the unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and of all Japanese Armed Forces and all Armed Forces under Japanese control wherever situated.We, acting by command of and on behalf of the Emperor of Japan, the Japanese Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, hereby accept the provisions in the declaration issued by the heads of the government of the United States, China and Great Britain 26 July 1945 at Potsdam, and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, which four powers are hereafter referred to as the Allied Powers.

 We hereby command the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters to issue at once orders to the commanders of all Japanese Forces and all forces under Japanese control wherever situated to surrender unconditionally themselves and all forces under their control.e hereby command all Japanese wherever situated and the Japanese people to cease hostilities fort with, to preserve and save from damage all ships, aircraft, and military and civil property, and to comply with all requirements which may be imposed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or by agencies of the Japanese Government at his direction.

     We hereby command all civil, military, and naval officials to obey and enforce all proclamations, orders and directives deemed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers to be proper to effectuate this surrender and issue by him or under his direction; and we direct all such officials to remain at their posts and to continue to perform their non-combatant duties unless specifically relieved by him or under his authority

     We hereby undertake for the Emperor            , the Japanese Government and their successors to carry out the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration in good faith, and to issue whatever orders and take whatever action by the Supreme commander for the Allied Powers or by any other designated representative of the Allied Powers for the purpose of giving effect to the that declaration.

     We hereby command the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial Headquarters at once to liberate all Allied Prisoners of War and civilian internees now under Japanese control and to provide for their protection, care, maintenance, and immediate transportation to p[aces as directed.     

     The authority of the Emperor and the Japanese Government to rule the state shell be subject to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers ,who as he deems proper to effectuate this terms of surrender.

   Signed at TOKYO BAY ,JAPAN on the SECOND day of SEPTEMBER  1945 

 Mamoru Shigemitsu :Behalf of the Emperor of Japan

. (9;04 a.m.)

Yoshijiro Umezu

By Command and in behalf of the Japanese Imperial Headquarters. (9:06 a.m.)

Accepted at TOKYO BAY, JAPAN at 9:08 on the SECOND day of  SEPTEMBER ,1945      for the United States ,Republic of China, United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, and in the interests of the other United Nations at war with Japan


       •  GeneraMacArthur: Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (9:08 a.m.)

       •  W, Nimitz :United States (9:12 a.m.)

       •  Hsu Yung-Ch’angRepublic of China(9:13 a.m.)

      •   Bruce Fraser :United Kingdom ( 9:14 a.m.)

      •   Kuzma Derevyanko: Soviet Republic (9:16 a.m.)

      •  Thomas Blamey: for Australia (9:17 a.m.)

      •  Moore Cosgrave: Dominion of Canada 9:18 a.m.)

      •  Jacques Leclerc: French Republic (9:20a.m.)

      •  Lieutenant Admiral.Celfrich: Netherlands (9:20a.m.)

      •  Air Vice-Marshal M. Isitt: New Zeland (9:22 a.m.,)


The Allied Powers and the Japanese Emperor signed the “Instrument of Surrender” aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2 1945. World War II was officially over.






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Former Youngstown Mayor, And Finance Director Indicted on Public Corruption Charges

Monday, September 3, 2018 .Special to HNN Provided by Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine

(YOUNGSTOWN, Ohio)—Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine, Ohio Auditor of State Dave Yost, and Mahoning County Prosecuting Attorney Paul Gains announced that a Mahoning County grand jury has indicted the former mayor and finance director of Youngstown on public corruption charges. The indictment is part of an ongoing public corruption probe of corrupt activity which includes a Poland, Ohio, businessman who was previously indicted on corruption charges last year.

Charles Sammarone, 75, of Youngstown, was indicted on the following charges:

  • One count of Engaging in a Pattern of Corrupt Activity, a felony of the first degree
  • Nine counts of Bribery, felonies of the third degree
  • Three counts of Tampering with Records, felonies of the third degree
  • One count of Falsification, a misdemeanor of the first degree

 David Bozanich, 61, of Youngstown, was indicted on the following charges:

  • One count of Engaging in a Pattern of Corrupt Activity, a felony of the first degree
  • Two counts of Aggravated Theft, felonies of the first degree
  • 15 counts of Bribery, felonies of the third degree

One count of Obstructing Justice, a felony of the fifth degree     Sammarone served as Mayor of Youngstown from 2011 to 2013. The indictment alleges that Sammarone solicited and received recurring cash payments from a vendor in return for steering projects to the company.The indictment also serves as a superseding indictment for Dominic Marchionda, 58, of Poland, and his affiliated businesses which were previously indicted on October 2, 2017, on charges including Engaging in a Pattern of Corrupt Activity, Aggravated Theft, Money Laundering, Receiving Stolen Property, Tampering with Records, and Telecommunications Fraud. The indictment includes new charges of Theft pertaining to insurance funds for the Legal Arts building and Money Laundering for laundering the stolen insurance funds related to the Legal Arts building.     Bozanich served as Finance Director of Youngstown until December 2017. The indictment alleges that Bozanich received benefits from several individuals and in return agreed to assist in securing public funding from the city for economic development projects, including Marchionda’s.

These indictments should make clear to the people of the Mahoning Valley that our investigators and forensic auditors will not relent until we’ve taken down the last crook standing. The abuses we’ve uncovered are maddening, especially for an area of our state that has been challenged economically,” Auditor Dave Yost said. “Our work here is not complete, and we will continue to partner with Attorney General DeWine and the Mahoning County sheriff and prosecutor in this investigation until we’ve rooted out all of the corruption in the valley.”he people of Youngstown deserve to have confidence in their elected officials, but the indictments announced today show a repeated pattern of bribery and corrupt activity,” said Attorney General Mike De Wine. “There has been tremendous cooperation in this case from my office,  Auditor of State Dave Yost, Prosecutor Paul Gains, Sheriff Jerry Green, and others who have worked hard to bring these charges to light in order to seek justice.”

     This ongoing case is being investigated by the Ohio Auditor of State’s Public Integrity Assurance Team with the assistance of the Mahoning County Sheriff’s Department. The Ohio Attorney General’s  Office is serving as special assistant prosecutor with Mahoning County in this case. An indictment is merely an accusation, and the defendants are presumed innocent until and unless proven guilty.


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# 01

 ArcelorMittal SA – 97.03 MMT

Total crude steel production in 2017 exceeded 1.689 billion metric tonnes, up 3.67 percent from 2016. ​That is an increase in annual production of 62 million metric tonnes. The world’s 10 largest steel producers accounted for approximately 25 percent of this production. Companies and their yearly productions are listed below, taken directly from the World Steel Association. Their production numbers are indicated in millions of metric tonnes (MMT).

# 02

 China Baowu Steel Group – 65.39 MMT

The largest Chinese producer on this list, China Baoqu Steel Group produced almost 20 million more metric tonnes than the third highest producer. A smaller producer initially, a merger with Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation in 2016 nearly doubled the output for this state-owned production powerhouse.

# 03

 NSSMC Group – 47.36 MMT

Nippon Steel & Sumimoto Metal (formerly Nippon Steel Company before a high-profile 2012 merger) is Japan’s largest steel manufacturer, producing roughly 48 million metric tons of crude steel in 2017. Nippon Steel employs over 50,000 staff and is traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. In 2012, the newly formed company had almost 61,000 employees. Shortly before the merger, the steel giant won the Fray International Sustainability Award, for their foray into sustainable steel manufacturing processes.

# 04

 HBIS Group – 45.56 MMT

HBIS is another Chinese state-owned steel producer, but they are involved in businesses beyond steel production and into global marketing and technology R&D. Their steel production arm employed over 120,000 people in 2017, and they boast on their website of producing over 200 steel products that serve as import substitutions. in 2017, MIT recognized one of their plants as being “the cleanest steel plant in the world.”

# 05

 POSCO – 42.19 MMT

Established in 1968, Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO) operates two integrated steel mills in South Korea and a joint venture with U.S. Steel (USS-POSCO) in California. Major steel products include hot rolled steel, steel plate, wire rod, cold rolled steel, electrical steel, and stainless steel products. In 2017, POSCO posted revenues of $53.6 billion, an increase of 14.3 percent over 2016.

# 06

 Shagang Group – 38.35 MMT

Founded in 1975, Shagang Group controls assets worth of $26 billion, and in 2017 was number 364 on the Forbes Global 500 list. According to their website, they employ over 30,000 staff members, and produce almost as much iron as they do steel. The group posted revenues of $32.56 billion in 2017, with an increase in profits of 201 percent from the year prior.

# 07

 Ansteel – 35.76 MMT

Angang Steel Co. Ltd. (Ansteel) is the second-largest Chinese state-owned steel producer. Founded in 1997 and headquartered in Anshan, in northeastern China, the company had operating revenues of $26.21 billion in 2017. Although impressive, Ansteel saw a harsh drop in profits, down $1.297 billion that same year.

# 08

 JFE Holdings – 30.15 MMT

JFE Holdings Inc. (TYO) is the parent company of JFE Steel Corp., one of the world’s largest integrated steel producers. Operating two major steelworks in Japan, JFE Steel was formed in 2002 as a result of the merging of NKK and Kawasaki Steel Corp. The company is actively traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. They produce all manner of steel products, from steel sheets and stainless steels to less conventional products like iron powders.

# 09

 Shougang Group – 27.63 MMT

Based in Beijing, Shougang Group was founded in 1919 and is still a top contender in the Chinese steel market, even operating an iron mine in Peru (the only iron mine in the country).  They are majority owned by the Government of Beijing, which probably did not  like the -13.5 percent loss in revenues experienced in 2017. Despite the revenue drop, the group still turned a profit of $3.3 billion, employing over 139,000 people.

# 10

 Tata Steel – 25.11 MMT

Tata Steel (formerly Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited) is a subsidiary of the Tata Group. Established in 1907, Tata Steel had a great 2017 with revenues up 30 percent. With operations in India, the company employs around 75,000 staff members across five continents. As of summer 2018, Tata Steel is the largest steel producer in India.


How Steel is Made: a Brief Summary of a Blast Furnace:

How Steel is Made with Blast FurnanceThere are two types of metals, ferrous & non-ferrous. Ferrous comes from, or contains iron, while Non-Ferrous does not contain iron.

Some examples of ferrous metals would be mild steel, cast iron, high strength steel, and tool steels.Modern steel-making can be broken down into six steps: Iron-making, which is the first step, involves the raw inputs of iron ore, coke, and lime being melted in a blast furnace. The resulting molten iron, also referred to as hot metal, still contains 4 to 4.5 percent carbon and other impurities that make it brittle.

Examples of non-ferrous metals would be copper, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, etc.To make steel, iron ore is first mined from the ground. It is then smelted in blast furnaces where the impurities are removed and carbon is added. In fact, a very simple definition of steel is “iron alloyed with carbon, usually less than 1%.”

The following text is taken from the Structural Manual For Ironworker Manual V-Volume I.

Blast furnaces require many auxiliary facilities to support their operations. However, in simplest terms, the furnace itself is a huge steel shell almost cylindrical in shape and lined with heat-resistant brick. Once started, or “blown-in,” the furnace operates continuously until the refractory lining needs renewal or until demand for iron drops to the point where the furnace is closed down. The duration of furnace operations from start to finish is referred to as a “campaign” and may last several years.

Iron ore and other iron bearing materials, coke and limestone are charged into the furnace from the top and work their way down, becoming hotter as they sink in the body of the furnace which is called the stack. In the top half of the furnace, gas from burning coke removes a great deal of oxygen from the iron ore. About halfway down, limestone begins to react with impurities in the ore and the coke to form a slag.

The three raw materials used in making pig iron (which is the raw material needed to make steel) are the processed iron ore, coke (residue left after heating coal in the absence of air, generally containing up to 90% carbon) and limestone (CaCO3) or burnt lime (CaO), which are added to the blast furnace at intervals, …Steel can theoretically be recycled indefinitely, with the remelting and alloying process ensuring its quality. That requires energy, but much less than to make new steel, and it needs no new source of carbon so is generally produced in electric arc furnaces. Coke is used as a fuel and a reducing agent in melting iron ore. It is produced by baking coal until it becomes carbon by burning off impurities without burning up the coal itself. When coke is consumed it generates intense heat but little smoke,making it ideal for smelting iron and steel.

Ash from the coke is absorbed by the slag. Some silica in the ore is reduced to silicon and dissolves in the iron as does some carbon in the coke. At the bottom of the furnace where temperatures rise well over 3000 Fahrenheit, molten slag floats on a pool of molten iron which is four or five feet deep. Because the slag floats on top of the iron it is possible to drain it off through a slag notch in the furnace. The molten iron is released from the hearth of the furnace through a tap hole.

The tapping of iron and slag is the major factor permitting additional materials to be charged at the furnace top.To create a ton of pig iron, you start with 2 tons (1.8 metric tons) of ore, 1 ton of coke (0.9 metric tons) and a half ton (0.45 metric tons) of limestone. The fire consumes 5 tons (4.5 metric tons) of air. The temperature at the core of the blast furnace reaches nearly 3,000 degrees F (about 1,600 degrees C)

This brief summary of the complex operations of a blast furnace is presented here to provide a point of reference for the actual flow of operations. Very often, several blast furnaces may be arranged in a single plant so that the most efficient possible use can be made of fuels, internal rail facilities, etc. A great site for how steel is made

The process of making steel was developed by…Sir Henry Bessemer, (born Jan. 19, 1813, Charlton, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died March 15, 1898, London), inventor and engineer who developed the first process for manufacturing steel inexpensively (1856), leading to the development of the Bessemer converter. He was knighted in 1879.

Andrew Carnegie invented steel in the United 1860s – Following the American Civil War, the country’s steel production grew with astonishing speed, led by Scottish-American industrialist, Andrew Carnegie. 1868 – Tungsten steel arrives, invented by Robert Mushet.J

(Harry Brearley)  There is a widely held view that stainless steel was discovered in 1913 by Sheffield metallurgist Harry Brearley. He was experimenting with different types of steel for weapons and noticed that a 13% Chromium steel had not corroded after several months.
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Bandits besieged the car of three men from Johnston Limestone Quarry  resulting in a shootout that left one bandit and one young quarry worker dead. One of the surviving victims fled the scene back to town, where he raised a posse of more than a hundred men and proceeded to hunt down one of the bandits and recover $9,700 of the $17,000 stolen from the quarry workers.The bandit, Moyek Zorko, was found hiding at the top of a tree and was shot down by the posse before he could draw his gun.

That story ran in the Nov. 16, 1917, edition of The Vindicator, and is one of many tales of wild happenings in and around the village of Lowellville documented in Roslyn I. Torella’s new book, “Lowellville, Ohio: Murders, Mayhem & More.”Lowellville today is known more for excellent Italian food, car shows and the Baby Doll Dance, but the village at the turn of the 20th century was not lacking in excitement, for better or worse.

Torella, born and raised in Lowellville but now living in Maryland, began working on the book in 2013 as a birthday gift for her father, David Torella.“He was a life-long Lowellville resident, and always told me stories about what it was like when he was a kid, and he’d tell me all the stories he’d heard growing up as well,” Torella said. “He loved history, and I thought it’d be a perfect gift.”

The book in its current form — available on Amazon and at Ross Market in Lowellville — is an expanded version of the book she made for her father. Compiled from newspaper stories, historical and genealogical records, the book’s chapters each focuses on a different kind of dramatic incident; one chapter examines “tales of love, and some gone wrong” while another documents “horrific accidents.” Topics range from the calamitous in “murders and tragic incidents” to the light-hearted — and sometimes salacious — “celebrations.”

One of Torella’s favorite stories in the book — aside from the Johnston Quarry shootout — documented the ill-fated 1904 Lowellville Street Fair, during which Lowellville merchants and the general populace banded together to throw a huge festival on Water Street .The merchants hoped the event would put Lowellville on the map, but instead the celebration generated negative press for its “hoochee-coochee” shows – naked women dancing in tents – prevalence of swindlers running rigged games of skill and gamblers from Youngstown who “fleeced everybody right and left.”

Torella will be in Lowellville today from 5 to 7 p.m. at the car show on Water Street for a book signing. In case of rain, she’ll sign books on the second floor of City Hall.

One last story: In 1910, a freight crew found a man next to a Baltimore and Ohio rail track holding his legs, which had been severed below the knees. The man asked his rescuers for a cigarette and complained about going so long without a smoke while explaining that he’d fallen off a train while stealing a ride. He picked up his legs and crawled a quarter mile before he stopped and “prayed for the light.” He didn’t survive the incident.

Lowellville is just a short distance from the village of HillsviLle where the Notorious ,BLACKHAND  WAS ACTIVE DURING THE EARLY PART OF THE 19TH CENTURY.


Al Capone, by name of Alphonse Capone, also called Scarface, (born January 17, 1899, BrooklynNew York, U.S.—died January 25, 1947, Palm Island, Florida), the most famous American gangster, who dominated organized crime in Chicago from 1925 to 1931.

Capone’s parents immigrated to the United States from Naples in 1893. Al, the fourth of nine children, grew up in Brooklyn, New York. He attended school until the sixth grade, quitting school at age 14 after striking a teacher. He worked a variety of odd jobs—as a candy store clerk, a bowling alley pin boy, a laborer in an ammunition plant, and a cutter in a book bindery—all the while serving in the South Brooklyn Rippers and Forty Thieves Juniors, two “kid gangs”—that is, bands of delinquent children known for vandalism and petty crime that were common in New York at the time.

Capone also became a member of the James Street Boys gang during this period, which was run by Johnny Torrio, the man that would become his lifelong mentor, and associated with the Five Points gang. At age 16 Capone became a member of the Five Points gang and served aspiring mobster Francesco Ioele (Torrio’s associate, more commonly known as Frankie Yale) as a bartender in Yale’s brothel-saloon, the Harvard Inn.

Before Capone turned 21, he was involved in several violent incidents. In a youthful scrape at the Harvard Inn, a young hoodlum named Frank Galluccio slashed Capone with a knife or razor across his left cheek after Capone made a crude comment to Galluccio’s sister, prompting the later nickname “Scarface.” Capone later shot the winner of a neighbourhood craps game to death as he robbed him of his winnings. Despite being questioned by the police, Capone was let go because no one had witnessed the murder. In another incident, Capone brutally assaulted a low-level member of the rival White Hand gang and left him for dead. Since White Hand gang leaders promised retribution, Yale sent Capone, his wife, and his young child to Chicago to work for Torrio.

Torrio had moved from New York to Chicago in 1909 to help run the giant brothel business under Chicago crime boss Big Jim Colosimo. Shortly after Capone’s arrival in the city in 1919, Colosimo was assassinated by either Yale or Capone himself in 1920 to make way for Torrio’s rule. As Prohibitionbegan, new bootlegging operations opened up and drew in immense wealth. In 1924 Capone was responsible for the murder of Joe Howard in retribution for Howard’s earlier assault of one of Capone’s friends. William McSwiggin, an aggressive prosecutor, attempted but failed to indict Capone when the eyewitnesses to the killing, fearing harm, lost their nerve and their memories of the incident. Later that year Torrio and Capone enlisted Yale and other associates to murder gang leader Dion O’Bannion in his flower shop. O’Bannion’s associates Hymie Weiss and George (“Bugs”) Moran were unsuccessful in their attempt to kill Torrio in early 1925.

After a stint in prison, Torrio retired to Italy, and Capone became crime czar of Chicago, running gamblingprostitution, and bootlegging rackets and expanding his territories by gunning down rivals and rival gangs. In 1926 Capone went into hiding for three months after he and some of his gunmen inadvertently killed McSwiggin while attacking other rivals. (That evening McSwiggin had been out drinking with two childhood friends, who were also beer runners, and other criminals when he was gunned down in the street.) Again Capone went unpunished. His wealth in 1927 was estimated at close to $100 million. The most notorious of the bloodlettings was the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, in which seven members of Bugs Moran’s gang were machine-gunned in a garage on Chicago’s North Side on February 14, 1929. Also in 1929, Capone served some 10 months in Holmesburg Prison, in Philadelphia, after being convicted of possessing a concealed handgun. Many Americans were fascinated by the larger-than-life image of Capone. Indeed, the motion picture Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932), directed by Howard Hawks, starred Paul Muni in the role of a gangster loosely based on Capone, who reputedly obtained a copy of the film for private screenings.

On June 5, 1931, Capone was indicted for 22 counts of federal income-tax evasion for the years 1925 through 1929. On June 12 Capone and others were charged with conspiracy to violate Prohibition laws for the years 1922 to 1931. In October Capone was tried, found guilty on three of the 23 counts, and sentenced to 11 years in prison and $50,000 in fines and court costs. He entered Atlanta penitentiary in May 1932 but was transferred to the new Alcatraz prison in August 1934. In November 1939, suffering from the general deterioration of paresis (a late stage of syphilis), he was released and entered a Baltimore hospital. Later he retired to his Florida estate, where he died from cardiac arrestin 1947, a powerless recluse.



Joseph “the wolf” Di Carlo

Giuseppe J. “Joseph” DiCarlo, Jr. (November 8, 1899 – October, 1980) known as “Joe the Gyp” and “The Wolf”, was a powerful member of the Buffalo crime family and son of Giuseppe DiCarlo, one of the first bosses of the Buffalo Mafia.


DiCarlo was born in Vallelunga, Sicily. He was once known as “the Al Capone of Buffalo” and as western New York’s “Public Enemy No. 1.” in addition to being the son of the Buffalo region’s first known Sicilian underworld boss, Giuseppe DiCarlo. DiCarlo was rejected as heir to his father’s criminal empire. DiCarlo became the underboss of the Buffalo family in 1922, but became a strong opponent of “the undertaker” Stefano Magaddino in later years. Magaddino kept him on as underboss to keep the peace between his faction and the DiCarlo supporters. But eventually DiCarlo was demoted of his duties almost 23 years later in 1945. His rap sheet included arrests for assault, coercion, intimidating a witness and violation of federal narcotics laws.

After spending many troubled years as a subordinate of the influential Stefano Magaddino, DiCarlo and his underlings wandered, seeking their fortunes in Youngstown, Ohio, and Miami Beach, Florida, before returning home to witness the disintegration of the western New York Mafia. Some say it was the police who forced DiCarlo to leave the Buffalo area. DiCarlo also had operations in the Utica-Rochester area of New York. In Youngstown, DiCarlo and his lieutenant and brother-in-law Sam Pieri ran gambling operations (bookmaking, numbers) from the mid 1940’s until the early 1950’s, but were either run out of town by law enforcement or possibly by the LaRocca/Pittsburgh crime family who also held considerable influence in the area along with the Cleveland crime family.

He would later serve as acting consigliere of the Buffalo mob while remaining the leader of the dissident faction from 1969-1974. DiCarlo was reportedly not sanctioned by the full New York Commission, but recognized by the Genovese crime family leadership, which represented the Buffalo crime family on the Commission. He stepped down in late 1974 when the new regime was sanctioned by the Commission.

In 1975, after his removal as consigliere, DiCarlo retired and died of natural causes in October, 1980.

He would later serve as acting consigliere of the Buffalo mob while remaining the leader of the dissident faction from 1969-1974. DiCarlo was reportedly not sanctioned by the full New York Commission, but recognized by the Genovese crime family leadership, which represented the Buffalo crime family on the Commission. He stepped down in late 1974 when the new regime was sanctioned by the Commission.

In 1975, after his removal as consigliere, DiCarlo retired and died of natural causes in October, 1980.


Frank Nitti
Organized crime figure Frank “The Enforcer” Nitti was a member of Al Capone’s Chicago gang, and the front man for Capone’s empire when Capone was imprisoned.
Born on January 27, 1886, Frank Nitti was an organized crime figure. He was one of Al Capone’s top henchmen and later the front man for the Chicago Outfit, the organized crime syndicate headed by Capone.

Early Years

Frank Nitti came to the United States from Salerno, Italy, in 1893, at the age of 7. His family settled in Brooklyn, but Frank moved to Chicago by 1920. Using his barbershop as a meeting place for small-time hoods, Nitti started fencing stolen jewelry, attracting the attention of big-time mobster Johnny Torrio and one of his strongmen, Al Capone. Nitti joined Al Capone’s criminal empire, called the Chicago Outfit. Rising quickly in the organization, he displayed a talent for business, becoming known for efficiently smuggling Canadian whiskey into Chicago speakeasies, which served as distribution points throughout the city. By the mid-1920s, Nitti was a high ranking member of the Capone mob.

Chicago Outfit Years

Although his nickname was “The Enforcer,” Frank Nitti rarely took part in violent activities, delegating them instead to underlings. In 1931, both Frank Nitti and Al Capone were convicted of tax evasion and sent to prison, but Nitti received an 18-month sentence, while Capone received 11 years. Severely claustrophobic, Nitti served his time in extreme discomfort, an experience that would mark him until the day he died.

When Nitti was released in 1932, the media dubbed him the new boss of Capone’s gang, although it has since been revealed that Nitti was the face, and perhaps brains, of the Outfit, while another man, Paul “The Waiter” Ricca, was its true leader. Aiming to take down the Outfit’s presumed head, in December 1932, Chicago policemen raided Nitti’s office, shooting him in the back and neck. Nitti survived, and during the trial it was revealed that one of the officers had been paid $15,000 to kill Nitti.

later Years

Needing to reinvent the Outfit after the end of Prohibition, Nitti turned the Outfit’s attention to the labor unions and, even more, Hollywood. But in 1943, Nitti and many top members of the Chicago Outfit were indicted for extorting money from some of the largest movie studios in Hollywood, including MGM, Paramount, and 20th Century Fox, and they faced stiff sentences if convicted. Because of his claustrophobia, enhanced during his first prison term, Nitti feared the idea of long-term confinement. So, faced with life in prison or perhaps murder by fellow Outfit members to keep him quiet, Nitti shot himself in the head on March 19, 1943.Since his death, Nitti has at times been portrayed as the nemesis of  Elliot Ness and his band nd his band of federal agents, in one film even falling to his death from the roof of the Chicago courthouse where Al Capone was being tried. History, however, has shown that Frank Nitti’s role in the mob was much quieter—a businessman in wolf’s clothing who got the job done with little flash or confrontation.



Image result for FRANK cOSTELLO

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Born in Italy on January 26, 1891, Frank “the Prime Minister” Costello started life a slum kid, but grew up to lead the Luciano crime family, the most powerful crime family in New York, after former mob boss Lucky Luciano went to prison in 1936. Costello retired as mob boss in 1957. That same year, he was imprisoned for contempt of a grand jury. Released from prison in 1961, he served as a Mafia elder statesman until his death in 1973.

Criminal Beginnings

The so-called “Prime Minister of the Underworld,” infamous gangster Frank Costello was born Francesco Castiglia on January 26, 1891, in Cosenza, Italy. When he was 4 years old, Costello moved with his parents, Calabrian immigrants, to New York City. The family settled in East Harlem, where young Frank soon embarked upon a life of crime: He became involved with a local Italian gang known as the 104th Street Gang, and before long, was heading the group.

Mob Boss

Frank Costello eschewed the violence of a gunshot for the diplomacy of a handshake. After Lucky Luciano went to prison in 1936, Costello became the de facto boss of the Luciano crime family (later renamed the Genovese crime family), the most powerful crime family in New York and one of the Five Families of the New York Mafia. Costello considered the job a burden, for what he truly craved in life—and would never acquire—was to escape the stigma of his criminal roots and be considered a respectable businessman.



Bugsy Siegel

Benjamin Buggsy Segal(February 28, 1906  – June 20, 1947) was an American mobster. Siegel was known as one of the most “infamous and feared gangsters of his day”.[2] Described as handsome and charismatic, he became one of the first front-page celebrity gangsters.[3] He was also a driving force behind the development of the Las Vegas Strip.[4] Siegel was not only influential within the Jewish mob but, like his friend and fellow gangster Meyer Lansky, he also held significant influence within the American Mafia and the largely Italian-Jewish National Crime Syndicate.

Siegel was one of the founders and leaders of Murder, Inc.[5] and became a bootlegger during the Prohibition. After the Twenty-first Amendment was passed repealing Prohibition in 1933, he turned to gambling. In 1936, he left New York and moved to California.[6]His time as a mobster (although he eventually ran his own operations) was mainly as a hitman and muscle, as he was noted for his prowess with guns and violence. In 1939, Siegel was tried for the murder of fellow mobster Harry Greenberg. He was acquitted in 1942.

Siegel traveled to Las VegasNevada, where he handled and financed some of the original casinos.[7] He assisted developer William R. Wilkerson‘s Flamingo Hotel after Wilkerson ran out of funds.[8] Siegel took over the project and managed the final stages of construction. The Flamingo opened on December 26, 1946, to poor reception and soon closed. It reopened in March 1947 with a finished hotel. Three months later, on June 20, 1947, Siegel was shot dead at the home of his girlfriend, Virginia Hill, in Beverly Hills, California.

Benjamin Siegel[9][1] was born on February 28, 1906 in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, the second of five children of a poor Jewish family that emigrated to the United States from the Galicia region of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[10][11][1] His parents, Jennie (Riechenthal) and Max Siegel, constantly worked for meager wages.[12] As a boy, Siegel left school and joined a gang on Lafayette Street on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. He committed mainly thefts until he met Moe Sedway. With Sedway, Siegel developed a protection racket in which he threatened to incinerate pushcart owners’ merchandise unless they paid him a dollar.[13][14] Siegel had a criminal record, dating from his teenage years, that included armed robberyrape and murder.[15]

The Bugs and Meyer mob[edit]

During adolescence, Siegel befriended Meyer Lansky, who formed a small mob whose activities expanded to gambling and car theft. Lansky, who had already had a run-in with Charles “Lucky” Luciano, saw a need for the Jewish boys of his Brooklyn neighborhood to organize in the same manner as the Italians and Irish. The first person he recruited for his gang was Siegel.[16]

Siegel became involved in bootlegging within several major East Coast cities. He also worked as the mob’s hitman, whom Lansky would hire out to other crime families.[17] The two formed the Bugs and Meyer Mob, which handled hits for the various bootleg gangs operating in New York and New Jersey, doing so almost a decade before Murder, Inc. was formed. The gang kept themselves busy hijacking the liquor cargoes of rival outfits.[18] The Bugs and Meyer mob was known to be responsible for the killing and removal of several rival gangland figures.[19] Siegel’s gang mates included Abner “Longie” ZwillmanLouis “Lepke” Buchalter, and Lansky’s brother, Jake; Joseph “Doc” Stacher, another member of the Bugs and Meyer Mob, recalled to Lansky biographers that Siegel was fearless and saved his friends’ lives as the mob moved into bootlegging: “Bugsy never hesitated when danger threatened,” Stacher told Uri Dan. “While we tried to figure out what the best move was, Bugsy was already shooting. When it came to action there was no one better. I’ve never known a man who had more guts.[20]

Siegel was also a boyhood friend to Al Capone; when there was a warrant for Capone’s arrest on a murder charge, Siegel allowed him to hide out with an aunt.[21] Siegel first smoked opium during his youth and was involved in the drug trade.[22] By age 21, Siegel was making money and flaunted it. He was regarded as handsome with blue eyes[23] and was known to be charismatic and likable.[24] He bought an apartment at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel and a Tudor home in Scarsdale, New York. He wore flashy clothes and participated in New York City night life.[11][25]

From May 13 to May 16, 1929, Lansky and Siegel attended the Atlantic City Conference, representing the Bugs and Meyer Mob.[26] Luciano and former Chicago South Side Gangleader Johnny Torrio held the conference at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Atlantic City, New Jersey. At the conference, the two men discussed the future of organized crime and the future structure of the Mafia crime families: Siegel stated, “The yids and the dagos will no longer fight each other.”

Marriage and family[edit]

On January 28, 1929, Siegel married Esta Krakower, his childhood sweetheart. They had two daughters.[4] Siegel had a reputation as a womanizer and the marriage ended in 1946.[27] His wife moved with their teenage daughters to New York.

Murder, Incorporated[edit]

By the late 1920s, Lansky and Siegel had ties to Luciano and Frank Costello, future bosses of the Genovese crime family. Siegel, Albert AnastasiaVito Genovese, and Joe Adonis, allegedly were the four gunmen who shot New York mob boss Joe Masseria to death on Luciano’s orders on April 15, 1931, ending the Castellammarese War.[28][29] On September 10 of that year, Luciano hired four gunmen from the Lansky-Siegel gang (some sources identify Siegel being one of the gunmen[30][31]), to murder Salvatore Maranzanoin his New York office, establishing Luciano’s rise to the top of the Mafia and marking the beginning of modern American organized crime.[32]

In 1931, following Maranzano’s death, Luciano and Lansky formed the National Crime Syndicate, an organization of crime families that brought power to the underworld.[5][33] The Commission was established for dividing Mafia territories and preventing future gang wars.[5]With his associates, Siegel formed Murder, Inc. After Siegel and Lansky moved on, control over Murder, Inc. was ceded to Buchalter and Anastasia.[34] Siegel continued working as a hitman.[35] Siegel’s only conviction was in Miami. On February 28, 1932, he was arrested for gambling and vagrancy, and, from a roll of bills, paid a $100 fine.[4]

Siegel had learned from his associates that he was in danger: His hospital alibi had become questionable and his enemies wanted him dead.[41] In the late 1930s, the East Coast mob sent Siegel to California.[42] Since 1933, he had traveled to the West Coast several times,[43] and in California, his mission was to develop syndicate-sanctioned gambling rackets with Los Angeles family boss Jack Dragna.[44] Once in Los Angeles, Siegel recruited gang boss Mickey Cohen as his chief lieutenant.[45] Knowing Siegel’s reputation for violence, and that he was backed by Lansky and Luciano — who, from prison, sent word to Dragna that it was “in [his] best interest to cooperate”[46] Dragna accepted a subordinate role.[47] — Siegel moved Esta and their daughters, Millicent and Barbara, to California. On tax returns, he claimed to earn his living through legal gambling at Santa Anita Park near Los Angeles.[48] In Los Angeles, he took over the numbers racket[49] and used money from the syndicate to help establish a drug trade route from the Mexico to the United States and organized circuits with the Chicago Outfit‘s Trans-America Wire service.[50][51]

By 1942, $500,000 a day was coming from the syndicate’s bookmaking wire operations.[49] In 1946, because of problems with Siegel, the Chicago Outfit took over the Continental Press and gave the percentage of the racing wire to Dragna, infuriating Siegel.[51][52] Despite his complications with the wire services, Siegel controlled several offshore casinos[53]and a major prostitution ring.[17] He also maintained relationships with politicians, businessmen, attorneys, accountants, and lobbyists who fronted for him.[54]


In Hollywood, Siegel was welcomed in the highest circles and befriended movie stars.[3] He was known to associate with George RaftClark GableGary Cooper and Cary Grant,[55] as well as studio executives Louis B. Mayer and Jack L. Warner.[56] Actress Jean Harlow was a friend of Siegel and godmother to his daughter Millicent. Siegel bought real estate and threw lavish parties at his Beverly Hills home.[50] He gained admiration from young celebrities, including Tony Curtis,[57] Phil Silvers, and Frank Sinatra.

Siegel had several relationships with actresses, including socialite Dorothy DiFrasso, the wife of an Italian count. The alliance with the countess took Siegel to Italy in 1938,[58]where he met Benito Mussolini, to whom Siegel tried to sell weapons. He also met Nazi leaders Hermann Göring and Joseph Goebbels, to whom he took an instant dislike and later offered to kill them.[59][60][61] He relented because of the countess’ anxious pleas.[55]

In Hollywood, Siegel worked with the syndicate to form illegal rackets.[47] He devised a plan of extorting movie studios; he would take over local trade unions (the Screen Extras Guild and the Los Angeles Teamsters) and stage strikes to force studios to pay him off, so that unions would start working again.[51] He borrowed money from celebrities and didn’t pay them back, knowing that they would never ask him for the money.[62][63] During his first year in Hollywood, he received more than $400,000 in loans from movie stars.

Greenberg murder and trial[edit]

On November 22, 1939, Siegel, Whitey KrakowerFrankie Carbo and Albert Tannenbaum killed Harry “Big Greenie” Greenberg outside his apartment. Greenberg had threatened to become a police informant,[64] and Louis Buchalter, boss of Murder, Inc., ordered his killing.[65] Tannenbaum confessed to the murder[66] and agreed to testify against Siegel.[67]Siegel and Carbo were implicated in the killing of Greenberg, and in September 1941, Siegel was tried for the murder.[68] Krakower was killed before he could face trial.[69] Siegel’s trial gained notoriety because of the preferential treatment he received in jail; he refused to eat prison food and was allowed female visitors. He was also granted leave for dental visits.[49][70] Siegel hired attorney Jerry Giesler to defend him. After the deaths of two state witnesses,[49][71] no additional witnesses came forward. Tannenbaum’s testimony was dismissed.[72] In 1942, Siegel and Carbo were acquitted due to insufficient evidence[72] but Siegel’s reputation was damaged. During the trial, newspapers revealed his past and referred to him as “Bugsy”. He hated the nickname (said to be based on the slang term “bugs”, meaning “crazy”, used to describe his erratic behavior), preferring to be called “Ben” or “Mr. Siegel”.[73] On May 25, 1944, Siegel was arrested for bookmaking. Raft and Mack Gray testified on Siegel’s behalf, and in late 1944, Siegel was acquitted again.[74]

Las Vegas[edit]


Siegel’s original Flamingo Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, 1947

In 1945, Siegel found an opportunity to reinvent his personal image and diverge into legitimate business with William R. Wilkerson‘s Flamingo Hotel.[75] In the 1930s, Siegel had traveled to southern Nevada with Lansky’s lieutenant Moe Sedway to explore expanding operations there. He had found opportunities in providing illicit services to crews constructing the Boulder Dam. Lansky had handed over operations in Nevada to Siegel, who turned it over to Sedway and left for Hollywood.[76][77]

In the mid-1940s, Siegel was lining things up in Las Vegas while his lieutenants worked on a business policy to secure all gambling in Los Angeles.[78] In May 1946, he decided that the agreement with Wilkerson had to be altered to give him control of the Flamingo.[79] With the Flamingo, Siegel would supply the gambling, the best liquor and food, and the biggest entertainers at reasonable prices. He believed that these attractions would lure not only the high rollers but thousands of vacationers willing to gamble $50 or $100.[53] Wilkerson was eventually coerced into selling all stakes in the Flamingo under the threat of death and went into hiding in Paris for a time.[80] From this point the  Flamingo became syndicate-run

On the night of June 20, 1947, as Siegel sat with his associate Allen Smiley in Virginia Hill‘s Beverly Hills home reading the Los Angeles Times, an unknown assailant fired at him through the window with a .30 caliber military M1 carbine, hitting him many times, including twice in the head.[17] No one was charged with killing Siegel, and the crime remains officially unsolved.[4

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